THE DISPERSION OF GREEK EDUCATION 73 got a certain amount of consideration in the comparative freedom of their educational system. But conditions were different in Rome. In the first place, the fact that adult culture was based on the language and literature of another people and that analytical studies like grammar had a great vogue among the educated classes, made the materials of instruction in the schools remote from the interests of childhood. In the second place, the more thorough organization of education in Rome had created a standard course of learning which every boy of a certain rank had to under- go irrespective of abilities or inclinations. The result is to be seen in the harsh discipline of both the elementary and the grammar schools. Orbilius plagosus, who taught Horace, and the rascally Indi magister whose incessant shouts and blows disturbed the equanimity of Martial,* are personages only too familiar in Roman literature. Quintilian, taking a broader and more humane view of education than the ordinary teacher, could not but be conscious of the problem which this state of matters presented to the intelligent educator. But though he strongly condemned corporal punishment as degrading and unnecessary, and sought to make allowance for the natural differences in the work of education, he failed to recognize that the root of the evil was in the character of the instruction. The boy for him was simply an imperfect man with weaker intelligence and stronger memory; and the instruction he approved for him, conformably with this crude psychology and with Roman tradition, was a lesser measure of adult knowledge and skill. When the Empire broke up, the literary education that trained orators for the public life of Rome on its best days, with Quintilian's Education of an Orator as one of its textbooks, became the model for the education of Europe, and brought the boys of a later day into a bondage even more complete than that of the Roman boys. It was not till many centuries had elapsed that the problem was re-opened and a more satisfactory solution sought in the light of new ideas of childhood, * Epigram, ix, 68.